Category Archives: English

Voice Surgery (Phonosurgery)

Voice Surgery

Voice surgery or vocal surgery is the name given to surgical operations performed to treat the benign or malignant diseases of the vocal cords. These surgeries may also be performed to change the voice quality. It is a very fine surgery that requires very special instruments that are used under a microscope (phonomicrosurgery).

What are the most common disorders treated with voice surgery?

The most common disorders treated with voice surgery include:

-Vocal Cord Nodules

-Vocal Cord Polyp

-Vocal Cord Cyst

-Vocal Cord Sulcus (Sulcus Vocalis)

-Vocal Cord Paralysis (Single Sided – Unilateral)

-Vocal Cord Paralysis (Both Sided – Bilateral)

– Vocal Cord Palsy

-Vocal Cord Cancer

-Decreasing the Voice Pitch

-Increasing the Voice Pitch


-Treatment of Presbylarynx (Larynx of the Elderly)

-Reinke’s Edema

Cervical Vertigo

Vertigo is not a specific disease, but a clinical symptom with many different etiologies. Cervical (cervicogenic) vertigo is one of the reasons of dizziness. It can be defined as a balance problem that arises specifically with head and neck movements, accompanied by neck problems. The duration of the symptoms may be short-term (acute) like a positional vertigo, or may be long-term.

Cervical vertigo may occur because of two different reasons. First reason is a problem with sensory (proprioceptive) stimuli in the muscles, tendons and ligaments of the neck. The faulty perception of the place and status of the neck structures by the vestibular system, meaning that these data are not in concordance with the data obtained from the eyes and the inner ear, may lead to clinical situations defined as vertigo, imbalance and dizziness. The second reason is short or long-term ischemia because of vascular dysfunction.

Moving the head backward, reaching up to a place or inclining and reaching to a place can adversely affect blood flow to the vertebrobasilar vascular system and cause cervical vertigo. Blood pressure in this system may decrease in elderly people when standing up from a lying position.

Patients who have cervical vertigo, may have additional feelings of imbalance, headache, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, hearing loss and rarely feeling of light flashing in the eyes.

30th Congress of the Union of European Phoniatricians

30th Congress of the Union of European Phoniatricians will be held in Antalya, Turkey in October 6-10, 2020.

The website is launched. Please visit for detailed information and updated news about the Congress.

For further information please e-mail:

30. Avrupa Foniyatristler Birliği Kongresi, 6-10 Ekim 2020 tarihlerinde Antalya’da gerçekleştirilecek.

Kongre ile ilgili detaylar ve güncel bilgiler için internet sitesini ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Bilgi için e-posta adresi:

Vocal Cord Nodules

Vocal cord nodules are symmetrical swellings on the touching surfaces of the vocal cords. They occur in pairs, with one nodule on each vocal cord at the site of greatest irritation. They are benign (in good manner) which means that they do not lead to formation of vocal cord malign (cancerous) pathologies.

They sometimes are called singer’s, screamer’s or teacher’s nodules. This name is given, because they are usullay seen in people who use their voice for long term or in an abnormal form which is called vocal abuse.

The most common symptoms for vocal fold nodules are voice changes (hoarseness, breathy voice, low-pitched voice, loss of active vocal range in voice professionals), sensation of pain in times of long speech or voice use, and feeling a lump in the throat.

Diagnosis of vocal cord nodules is easily made by either rigid or flexible endoscopic examination of larynx.

Main treatment option for vocal cord nodules is voice therapy. Voice therapy is a behavioral method that aims to change the vocal behaviour of the patient, and decreases the trauma that the vocal fold face during phonation. Phonomicrosurgery is another option, which is usually reserved for patients that do not respond well to voice therapy.

I hope you a healthy voice and a beautiful day.

For further information and appointments please contact:

Otolaryngology, Voice Disorders, Head and Neck Surgery
President, Professional Voice Society
Vice President, European Academy of Phoniatrics
Telephone: +90 312 284 28 88
GSM: +90 553 251 09 82
Skype: drhoguz_1
Address: Neorama Business Center, Floor 5, Office 20, Sogutozu, Ankara, Turkey




Polypoid Corditis (Reinke’s Edema)

Reinke preop

Reinke’s edema (polypoid corditis) is a voice disorder, in which, gel-like viscous fluid accumulates in the vocal folds, just below the surface of the vocal fold.

The most common reasons are cigarette smoking (tobacco use), laryngopharyngeal reflux (backflow og acidic stomach content to the throat) and long term voice overuse or misuse. Repeated or chronic upper respiratory tract infections and frequent throat clearing are also cofactors that can cause Reinke’s edema.

Signs and Symptoms
The mass and volume of the vocal folds increase. This leads to a lower pitch in the voice. Speaking and singing needs more vocal effort and is instable.

Surgical treatment (phonomicrosurgery) is indicated. However, before and after surgery, the causes that result in the pathology, must be corrected. If the patient quits smoking, if the reflux is treated and if a hygienic vocal behaviour is adapted, recurrence is not likely. If it is done by an experienced surgeon, both vocal folds may be operated simultaneously. In the early postoperative period, vocal effort may increase for a short period of time. This is secondary to the removal of the oedema, which leaves a gap between the vocal folds that is not present before. This aspect is the most important part of surgery. An important amount of the thin and fragile epithelium covering the oedema must be left in place and should never be resected completely. Further resection may lead to scar and longer lasting vocal problems.

Recurrence of Reinke´s oedema is unlikely following a surgery in experienced hands. An important improvement of voice is expected after surgery. Hygienic vocal behaviour, ie. cessation of smoking and proper vocal use elongates these good results.

Haldun OGUZ, M.D., Professor of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery

Telephone: +90 312 284 28 88
GSM: +90 531 431 06 94
Address: Neorama İş Merkezi Kat 5 No.20 Söğütözü, Ankara
Detailed Address: Beştepeler Mahallesi, Yaşam Caddesi, Adalet Sokak, Neorama İş Merkezi 13/20, Söğütözü, Ankara
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Videonystagmography: A Clinical Tool for Diagnosis of Vertigo

Videonystagmography (VNG) is a clinical test method to evaluate inner ear and central (brain) motor functions about balance. VNG measures the movements of the eyes and gives information about the proper functioning of of inner ear vestibular (balance) function. The testing is comfortable for the patient.  VNG test gives accurate, consistent, and reliable results.
VNG test is used for differential diagnosis between reasons of vertigo. It is performed to understand if a vestibular (inner ear) disease may be causing the balance problem (dizziness, vertigo, lightheadedness, etc) problem. It also gives clue about the side of the disease (right or left inner ear, or sometimes both ears). VNG test involves a group of tests that document the patient’s ability to follow a visual stimulus with his/her eyes and the capacity of the balance system to respond to this stimulus.
VNG test gives information about the functional capacity of each inner ear vestibuler system to understand the origin of the balance problem. Glasses that perform infra-red stimulus (infrared goggles) are worn by the patient during the procedure. The test does not involve any invasive procedure. The patient only wears goggles and the stimulus is given by the glasses. VNG test usually takes less than one hour. According to the specific patient’s needs, one to one and a half hour appointment is given by our clinic. The four main parts of the test are, ocular mobility, optokinetic nystagmus, positional nystagmus and caloric stimulation.
For more information please contact:
+90 312 284 28 88